Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Cholesterol and cardiovascular disease - Research Paper Example Keywords: Cholesterol, hypercholesterolemia, heart attack, statins INTRODUCTION Cholesterol is a fat, a sterol. It is one of the main constituents of the cell membranes. Animal cells exclusively manufacture cholesterol, so it is an animal fat. Cholesterol is insoluble in water and is classified on the basis of density into very low density lipoproteins, intermediate density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins. The elevated levels of cholesterol in the human body play a very drastic role. The most crucial among all the effects is its effect on heart. The related symptoms may also arise depending upon the quantity of it in the blood and organs. REALTION BETWEEN CHOLESTROL AND HEART DISEASE When the level of cholesterol rises in blood, it starts getting accumulated in the inner walls of the vessels. Not all the fats are bad. There are two main types of cholesterol, we will deal here. One is the good cholesterol, HDL and other is bad one, LDL. These are t he two major types of fats in which they move around in the body. LDL clogs the arteries and HDL actually works opposite to it and helps clearing the cholesterol from blood. The total cholesterol level should be less than 200 mg/dL. The LDL level should be below 100 mg/dL. In general, higher the LDL levels, more are the chances of getting cardiac diseases. The LDL is of low density, it tends to accumulate in the blood vessels instead of circulating in the blood. Over the time, this buildup of LDL causes the hardening of the arteries. The arteries narrow down and blood flow gets slow. The blood is therefore, unable to carry the nutrients to the heart and person suffers from the chest pain. As the plaque deposit grows, it can block the main artery, coronary artery, causing heart attack (Webmd.com, 2013). RISK OF GETTING CARDIAC DISEASE Hypercholesterolemia is a modifying risk factor for coronary artery disease. There are many risk factors associated with an elevated level of cholester ol in body, some major are obesity, diabetes, heart failure, congestive heart disease, hormonal imbalance, glucose production inhibition, bleeding disorders, gynecological disorders like infertility, eye sight loss and many more. Heart attack is the major cause of death in the world. This heart attack and related cardiac diseases are due to the cholesterol. It is estimated that 54% of deaths in the Eastern Mediterranean Region are due to CVS disorders. In Oman, it is about 49%, and 13% in Somalia. The deaths due to the heart problems in UAE are about 28%, 19% in Sudan and 52% in Lebanon. About 600,000 Americans die due to heart attack. Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of their death. Every year, about 7 million Americans have heart attack. Out of these, some might had had an attack and others suffer first attack. The risk factors contributing to these deaths are obesity, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake and high lipid intake. The most common among all is the diet having high levels of bad fats along with sedentary lifestyle. About 49% have these risk factors in general,
Monday, January 27, 2020
Philosophy And Personal Identity Philosophy Essay Personal identity starts at the moment of conception, within time personal identity can change or not change. The change in identity differs in many instances by causes of psychological, physical or environmental changes in the person life. As life progresses in time people tend to change their views on many issues and identity is involved with those issues. Day to day activities also play an important role on a persons present or prior identity by being exposed to different elements encountered within their mind while operating in these activities. The mind is the most important influential part of a person to establish their identity thru time present or future. The identity is very important for the well being of a person in their everyday life, at work, and even with their relaintionships. When it comes to philosophy Personal Identity is a very broad and extensive topic, many philosopher have their own views on the issue. On the other hand my personal choice for this paper has to be a very well known philosopher by the name of John Locke who was one of the greatest in Europe in the late 1600s and early 1700s until his death. John Locker was born into the stage in Europe which was called the Enlightenment in which he helped find the identity of Thomas Jefferson to the idea of the Declaration Of Independence by stating this men are endowed with certain inalienable rights, and that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. With these words stated by Thomas Jefferson, John Locke began his successful thrill of Philosophy and the issue of Personal Identity. As Locke explains his version of Personal Identity he explains it in a higher power and often relies on faith, as opposed to science, to aid him in his major life decisions by using his personal identity. John Lockes views on personal identity are set out in the selection, Of Identity and Diversity, taken from his Essay Concerning Human Understanding. In this essay he talks about humans are able to understand by applying his theories and ideas. John Locke had his heart of personal identity in Section 9 of his essay in which he states his idea of a person is that of a thinking, intelligent (rational) being with consciousness of itself (self-consciousness). The notion of a thinking intelligent being amounts to this.While John Locke had his opinion and theories on personal identity other philosophers do too.In reference Identity is very complex and it has no set definition everyone agrees on. Sarup (1996) talks about identity by using the example of a passport. This may include a photograph of the person as well as other details including nationality, a persons full name and date-of-birth. While a passport is a form of identity it does not express who you are as a pers on. It shows you who you are so that you can be recognized in a bureaucratic sense (Sarup, 1996). Sarup the author states that identity is to do with who one thinks one is, what one believes and what one does. While Kidd another author believes that identity relates to how we think about ourselves as people, how we think about other people around us and what we think others think of us. In other words, the ability to figure out (Kidd, 2002)who we are as a person. Kidd the other author states that we are shaped by our culture, and we shape it and perpetuate in it in our day-to-day lives. Although culture and identity are often linked they are, in fact, different in many ways than one . With culture representing the macro pattern- the bigger picture- and identity representing the smaller more micro meanings we have as individuals ( Kidd, 2002, p.7). In my personal identity I have experienced many facets within my 25 years of living in this earth.My personal identity has been developing each minute of the day,as well as days on and in years.In my readings and research I personally coincide with authors who state that personal identity is divided by two subsets.These two subsets are characterized by experience and learning.On the contrary to Lockes beliefs I feel these two subsets characterize my personal identitys growth.According to Wenger, identity can be seen as a negotiated experience, which is developed through engagement in practice in which gives us certain experiences of participation and what our communities pay attention to makes us as participants (Wenger, 1998). Identity in practice is defined socially not merely because it is believed in a social discourse of the self and of social categories, but also because it is produced as a lived experience of participation in the specific communities (Wenger, 1998, p.151). Learning is a very crucial item people should encounter because it benefits us in the long run when it comes to our daily lives and personal encounters and relaintionships.The many things ive learned thru out my years has set out to my advantage and my personal identity .While working for different companies and organizations my personal identity has differed in each setting because I had a different role in each one.Having different roles in each of my jobs,my personal identity had to change in time in order for my tenure their to be successful and keep up with the rest of the laborers.According to the author Wenger A sense of a learning trajectory gives us ways of sorting out what matters and what does not, what contributes to identity and what remains marginal (Wenger, 1998, p.155). When we speak of ones personal identity we speak as what makes us the person that we are.Our identity consists of what makes us unique and different as an individual and from others.According to Locke personal identity does not involve the body at all,the person could be involved by his soul.If such would occur Locke suggested that the person could be transferred by his own soul.However personal identity to Locke cannot be equated with the identity of a thinking substance either because the identity doesnt follow the identity of the soul ,but follows the set of individual thoughts it contains.Here is an excerpt of one Lockes essay where he states the personal identity would follow the thoughts themselves, and not the thinking substance. Let any one reflect upon himself,and conclude,that he has in himself an immaterial Spirit,which is that which thinks in him,and in the constant change of his body keeps him the same;and is that which he calls himself: Let him also suppose it to be the same soul,that was in Nestor or Thersites, at the Siege Of Troy.But he,now having no consciousness of any of the Actions either of Nestor or Thersites,does,or can he,conceive himself the same person with either of them? Can he be concerned in either of their actions?Attribute them to himself, or think them his own more than the actions of any other man,that ever existed?But let him once find himself conscious of any of the actions of Nestor,he then finds himself the same person with Nestor.(Section 15).Since we know and read that Locke rejects that the identity of a person is the identity of an immaterial substance or soul.For Locke at every moment you could have a different soul,thoughts,or a different thinker and still have the same person see.(Section 25) Another rejection by Locke is the idea the the identity of a man is needed for the identity of the person.It wouldnt be necessary since you could have the same person in two different beings as he states in the Prince and the Cobbler story. For should the soul of a prince,carrying with it the consciousness of the princes past life,enter and inform the body of a cobbler,as soon as deserted by his own soul,everyone sees he would be the same person with the prince.(Section 15). For Locke personal identity is not enough if it doesnt include the identity of consciousness.According to Locke consciousness is the ideas that a soul entertains,not in the soul that entertains them.The most important part of consciousness is memory,since memory can remember the actions and experiences of some past person,from the perspective of that person,then one thereby qualifies as identical with that person.To Locke he describes personal identity as a forensic notion.(Section 26).While most philosophers and philosophy get confused with his identity of consciousness Locke statedFor since consciousness always accompanies thinking,and it is that which makes every one to be what he calls self,and thereby distinguishes himself from all other thinking things:in this along consists consists personal identity and as far as this consciousness can be extended backwards to any past action or thought,so far reaches the identity of that person;it is the same self now it was then;and it is b y the same self with this present one that now reflects on it,that that action was done.(Section 9). Overtime John Locke has been criticized by his theories and his way of thinking by fellow philosophers and other entities.Thomas Reid has a view that is similar to Descartes in which a person who is a simple indivisible substance that has no temporal or spatial parts.Thomas Reid states that My personal identity implies the continued existence of that indivisible thing which I can myself.Whatever this self may be,it is something which thinks,and deliberates,and resolves,and acts and suffers.I am not thought,I am not action, I am not action,I am not feeling;I am something that thinks,and acts and suffers.My thoughts,and actions,and feelings change every moment;they have no continues,but a successive,existence that self or I,to which they belong,is permanent,and has the same relation to all the succeeding thoughts,actions,and feelings which I call mine. Reid argues that memory is the evidence for personal identity,but not the basis of personal identity.Reid developed several arguments w hich go against John Lockes memory is the basis of personal identity.The four main arguments that Reide goes against Locke are: The Duplication problem which states one person may be identity with more than one person. The Brave Soldier Paradox which a man may be ,and at the same time not be,the person that did a particular action. The problem of removing reward punishment and responsibility. The minor objection that confuses consciousness with memory.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
The gothic novel was invented almost single-handedly by Horace Walpole, whose The Castle of Otranto (1764) contains essentially all the elements that constitute the genre. Walpole's novel was imitated not only in the eighteenth century and not only in the novel form, but it has influenced writing, poetry, and even film making up to the present day. It introduced the term Ã¢â¬Å"gothic romanceÃ¢â¬ to the literary world. Due to its inherently supernatural, surreal and sublime elements, it has maintained a dark and mysterious appeal. However, the roots of the Gothic? precede the Gothic? works of Horace Walpole.The focus on the grotesque in the medieval period (visible especially in the paintings and architecture of the period) provides a key backdrop against which Gothic must be read, as do the violent and often grotesque tragedies written for the Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre, with their detailed, almost surgical exploration of the supernatural, vice, corruption, imprisonment, br utality and sexuality, all of which were to provide the very substance of the Gothic authors. (Note particularly Ã¢â¬ËMacbeth? and Ã¢â¬ËDr Faustus?) Gothic literature is devoted primarily to stories of horror, the fantastic, and the Ã¢â¬Å"darkerÃ¢â¬ supernatural forces.These forces often represent the Ã¢â¬Å"dark sideÃ¢â¬ of human natureÃ¢â¬â irrational or destructive desires. Gothic literature derives its name from its similarities to the Gothic medieval cathedrals, which feature a majestic, unrestrained architectural style with often savage or grotesque ornamentation (the word Ã¢â¬Å"GothicÃ¢â¬ derives from Ã¢â¬Å"Goth,Ã¢â¬ the name of one of the barbaric Germanic tribes that invaded the Roman Empire). The Gothic genre (in both literature and architecture) is therefore associated with savagery and barbarism.Generally speaking, gothic literature delves into the macabre nature of humanity in its quest to satisfy mankind's intrinsic desire to plumb the depths of t error. The key features of gothic texts are: 1) the appearance of the supernatural, 2) the psychology of horror and/or terror, 3) the poetics of the sublime, 4) a sense of mystery and dread 5) the appealing hero/villain, 6) the distressed heroine, and 7) strong moral closure (usually at least). ELEMENTS OF THE GOTHIC IN TEXTS 1. Setting in a castle or haunted house. The action takes place in and around an old castle, sometimes seemingly abandoned, sometimes occupied.The castle often contains secret passages, trap doors, secret rooms, dark or hidden staircases, and possibly ruined sections. The castle may be near or connected to caves, which lend their own haunting flavour with their branchings, claustrophobia, and mystery. (Translated into modern filmmaking, the setting might be in an old house or mansionÃ¢â¬âor even a new houseÃ¢â¬âwhere unusual camera angles, sustained close ups during movement, and darkness or shadows create the same sense of claustrophobia and entrapment. ) It is usually a dwelling that is inhabited by or visited regularly by a ghost or other supposedly supernatural being.Example: Horace Walpole's The Castle of Otranto. Walpole's novel first introduced to gothic literature its single most influential convention, the haunted castle. The castle is the main setting of the story and the centre of activity. Cemetery /Graveyard. A cemetery defines a place which is used for the burial of the dead. Cemeteries are widely used in Gothic Literature as oftentimes frightening places where revenance can occur. Catacombs are especially evocative Gothic spaces because they enable the living to enter below ground a dark labyrinth resonating with the presences and mysteries of the dead. . The Weather is used in a number of ways and forms, some of these being: Mist Ã¢â¬â This convention in Gothic Literature is often used to obscure objects (this can be related to the sublime) by reducing visibility or to prelude the insertion of a terrifying person or thing; Storms Ã¢â¬â These frequently accompany important events. Flashes of lightning accompany revelation; thunder and downpours prefigure the appearance of a character or the beginning of a significant event (eg thunder precedes the entrance of the witches in Ã¢â¬ËMacbeth?;Sunlight Ã¢â¬â represents goodness and pleasure; it also has the power to bestow these upon characters. 3. An atmosphere of mystery and suspense. (or a sense of dread) The work is pervaded by a threatening feeling, a fear enhanced by the unknown. Often the plot itself is built around a mystery, such as unknown parentage, a disappearance, or some other inexplicable event eg. Ghosts walking or a painting coming to life. There may be an ancient prophecy connected with the castle or its inhabitants. It is usually obscure, partial or confusing.This serves to captivate the reader and encourage further reading. The atmosphere may also be seen acting upon the protagonists in texts, influencing them by excitin g their curiosity or fear. 4. Claustrophobia / Entrapment & Imprisonment: A favourite horror device of the Gothic finds a person confined or trapped, such as being shackled to a floor or hidden away in some dark cell or cloister. This sense of there being no way out contributes to the claustrophobic psychology of Gothic space. It consists of an abnormal dread of being confined in a close or narrow space.Often ttributed to actual physical imprisonment or entrapment, claustrophobia can also figure more generally as an indicator of the victim's sense of helplessness or horrified mental awareness of being enmeshed in some dark, inscrutable destiny 5. The supernatural may be intrinsic to the plot. This is generally in the form of some kind of supernatural being or object, such as a vampire, witch, devil or ghost, which is frightening due to its refusal to adhere to the laws of nature, God or man. In Ã¢â¬ËMacbeth? there are three witches. Dr Faustus communicates with a demon and indirec tly with Lucifer.All of Ã¢â¬ËParadise Lost? involves the supernatural. 6. Dreams, omens, portents, visions. Dreaming is characterised as a form of mental activity that takes place during the act of sleep. Dreams invoke strong emotions within the dreamer, such as ecstasy, joy and terror. Dreams dredge up these deep emotions and premonitions that reflect tellingly upon the dreamer, what one might conceal during waking hours but what emerges in sleep to haunt and arouse the dreamer. It is most likely due to this heightened emotional state that dreams are used so often within Gothic Literature.By invoking dream states within their characters, authors are able to illustrate emotions on a more unmediated and, oftentimes, terrifying level. Dreams reveal to the reader what the character is often too afraid to realise about himself or herself. Dreaming also has an ancient relation with the act of foretelling wherein the future is glimpsed in the dream state. Perhaps the most famous Gothic example of significant dreams occurs in Shelley's Ã¢â¬ËFrankenstein? after Frankenstein Ã¢â¬Ëawakes' his creature: he falls into a dream state that begins with his kissing of Elizabeth, his love.However, this kiss changes her in the most drastic way as she transforms into the rotting corpse of Caroline, Victor's dead mother. Upon awakening from this horrifying dream, Victor finds himself staring into the face of the monster he has created. Interpretations of this dream lead to explorations of Frankenstein's psyche, relational ability and sexuality. A character may have a disturbing dream vision, or some phenomenon may be seen as a portent of coming events. For example, if the statue of the lord of the manor falls over, it may portend his death.In modern fiction, a character might see something (a shadowy figure stabbing another shadowy figure) and think that it was a dream. This might be thought of as an Ã¢â¬Å"imitation vision. Ã¢â¬ Banquo in Ã¢â¬ËMacbeth? dreams of the Ã¢ â¬Ëweird sisters?. Lady Macbeth?s suppressed guilt emerges when she is seen sleepwalking. 7. The stock characters of Gothic fiction include tyrants, villains, bandits, maniacs, Byronic heroes, persecuted maidens, femmes fatales, madwomen, magicians, vampires, werewolves, monsters, demons, angel, fallen angel, the beauty and the beast, revenants, ghosts, perambulating skeletons, the Wandering Jew, and the Devil himself. .Villain-Hero (Satanic, Promethean, Byronic Hero) The villain of a story who either 1) poses as a hero at the beginning of the story or 2) simply possesses enough heroic characteristics (charisma, sympathetic past, etc) so that either the reader or the other characters see the villain-hero as more than a simple charlatan or bad guy. Three closely related types exist: Satanic Hero: a Villain-Hero whose nefarious deeds and justifications of them make him a more interesting character than the rather bland good hero.Example: The origin of this prototype comes from Roman tic misreading of Milton's Paradise Lost, whose Satan poets like Blake and Shelley regarded as a far more compelling figure than the moralistic God of Book III of the epic. Gothic examples: Beckford's Vathek, Radcliffe's Montoni, and just about any vampire. Promethean: a Villain-Hero who has done good but only by performing an over-reaching or rebellious act. Prometheus from ancient Greek mythology saved mankind but only after stealing fire and ignoring Zeus' order that mankind should be kept in a state of subjugation.Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is tellingly subtitled the Ã¢â¬Å"Modern Prometheus. Ã¢â¬ Consider whether Dr Faustus is a Promethean hero. (The vaulting arches and spires of Gothic cathedrals reach wildly to the sky as if the builders were trying to grasp the heavens , an ambition for the eternal that is likewise expressed in many works of Gothic literature (consider Manfred's quest for supernatural power in Byron's poem, or Frankenstein's quest to become godlike by cr eating life or Dr. Faustus pact Ã¢â¬â offering his soul for 24 years of power).Byronic Hero: a later variation of the Ã¢â¬Å"antithetically mixedÃ¢â¬ Villain-Hero. Aristocratic, suave, moody, handsome, solitary, secretive, brilliant, cynical, sexually intriguing, and nursing a secret wound, he is renowned because of his fatal attraction for female characters and readers and continues to occasion debate about gender issues. Example: Byron's Childe Harold and, more gothically, Manfred are the best examples, but this darkly attractive and very conflicted male figure surfaces everywhere in the 19th and 20th century gothic eg Heathcliff or Wilde?s Dorian Gray.Byron himself was described as Ã¢â¬Å"mad, bad and dangerous to know. Ã¢â¬ The Byronic hero in literature and life: A. Robin Hood B. Richard III C. Iago D. Faust/ Dr. Faustus E. Milton's Satan F. Victor Frankenstein G. Frankenstein's Creature H. Dracula I. Byron?s Manfred J. Cain K. Lara L. Conrad M. Childe Harold N. Byron, Shelley O. Ambrosio P. Peter Quint Q. Miss Jessel R. Stalin S. Hitler T. The Unabomber U. Prometheus 9. The Pursued Protagonist This refers to the idea of a pursuing force that relentlessly acts in a severely negative manner on a character.This persecution often implies the notion of some sort of a curse or other form of terminal and utterly unavoidable damnation, a notion that usually suggests a return or Ã¢â¬Å"hangoverÃ¢â¬ of traditional religious ideology to chastise the character for some real or imagined wrong against the moral order. The Wandering Jew is perhaps the archetypically pursued/pursuing protagonist. Ã¢â¬âDrew McCray 10. Pursuit of the Heroine This is the pursuit of a virtuous and idealistic (and usually poetically inclined) young woman by a villain, normally portrayed as a wicked, older but still potent aristocrat.While in many early Gothic novels such a chase occurs across a Mediterranean forest and/or through a subterranean labyrinth, the pursuit of the he roine is by no means limited to these settings. This pursuit represents a threat to the young lady's ideals and morals (usually meaning her virginity), to which the heroine responds in the early works with a passive courage in the face of danger; later gothic heroines progressively become more active and occasionally effective in their attempts to escape this pursuit and indict patriarchy. eg. Angela Carter?s Ã¢â¬ËThe Bloody Chamber. ?Women in distress. As an appeal to the pathos and sympathy of the reader, the female characters often face events that leave them fainting, terrified, screaming, and/or sobbing. A lonely, pensive, and oppressed heroine is often the central figure of the novel, so her sufferings are even more pronounced and the focus of attention. The women suffer all the more because they are often abandoned, left alone (either on purpose or by accident), and have no protector at times.Women threatened by a powerful, impulsive, tyrannical male. One or more male chara cters has the power, as king, lord of the manor, father, or guardian, to demand that one or more of the female characters do something intolerable. The woman may be commanded to marry someone she does not love (it may even be the powerful male himself), or commit a crime. 11. The Outsider: The one theme that cuts through virtually all Gothic is that of the Ã¢â¬Å"outsider,Ã¢â¬ embodied in wanderers like Frankenstein's creature.Gothic fiction is concerned with the outsider, whether the stationary figure who represses his difference, or the wandering figure who seeks for some kind of salvation, or else the individual who for whatever reason- moves entirely outside the norm. In any event, he is beyond the moderating impulses in society, and he must be punished for his transgression. He is gloomy and melancholy, full of self-pity and self-hatred. Like Cain, he is the perpetual outsider, marked by his appearance, doomed to wander the four corners of the earth, alone and reviled.It may be argued that Frankenstein himself becomes an outsider as he grows more and more like his creation. . While the society at large always appears bourgeois in its culture and morality, the Gothic outsider is a counterforce driven by strange longings and destructive needs. While everyone else appears sane, he is insane; while everyone else appears bound by legalities, he is trying to snap the pitiless constrictions of the law; while everyone else seems to lack any peculiarities of taste or behaviour, he feels only estrangement, sick longings, terrible surges of power and devastation.Take for example, Heathcliff in Ã¢â¬ËWuthering Heights?. 12. Possession The popularity of belief in demonic possession seems to have originated within Christian Theology during the Middle Ages. During this time, Christians lived in fear concerning the war being waged between God and the Devil over every mortal soul. Hence, this fear of possession seemed to culminate into an act that could be viewed by t he mortal eye. This act is defined as the forced possession of a mortal body by the Devil or one of his demons.There are two types of possession and either can be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary possession seems to involve a willing exchange in the form of some compact between evil spirit and mortal, often involving wealth, power or goods (eg. The pact Faustus makes); involuntary possession occurs when the devil randomly selects an unwitting host. The two types of possession consist of the transference of the Devil or demon directly into the mortal body or the sending of the Devil or demon into the body by a third party, usually a mortal dabbler in the dark arts.Following the act, the possessed is said to show many symptoms including abnormal strength, personality changes, fits, convulsions, bodily odours resembling sulphur, lewd and lascivious actions, the ability to levitate, the ability to speak in tongues or the ability to foretell future events. Many religions acknowledge t he act of possession still today, most notably the Catholic Church. There seem to be three ways in which to end a possession. 13. Revenance This is the return of the dead to terrorise or to settle some score with the living.4. Revenge Revenge is characterized as the act of repaying someone for a harm that the person has caused; the idea also points back generically to one of the key influences upon Gothic literature: the revenge tragedies of Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. Revenge may be enacted upon a loved one, a family member, a friend, an object or even an area. Within Gothic Literature, revenge is notably prominent and can be enacted by or upon mortals as well as spirits.Revenge can take many forms, such as harm to body, harm to loved ones, and harm to family. The most Gothic version of revenge in Gothic Literature is the idea that it can be a guiding force in the revenance of the dead. 15. Unreliable Narrator A narrator tells a story and determines the story?s point of view. A n unreliable narrator, however, does not understand the importance of a particular situation or makes an incorrect conclusion or assumption about an event that he/she witnesses.An important issue in determining the The Turn of the Screw. 16. Multiple Narrative/Spiral Narrative Method The story is frequently told through a series of secret manuscripts or multiple tales, each revealing a deeper secret, so the narrative gradually spirals inward toward the hidden truth. The narrator is often a firstperson narrator compelled to tell the story to a fascinated or captive listener (representing the captivating power of forbidden knowledge). (Note Ã¢â¬ËWuthering Heights?) 17. High, even overwrought emotion.The narration may be highly sentimental, and the characters are often overcome by anger, sorrow, surprise, and especially, terror. Characters suffer from raw nerves and a feeling of impending doom. Crying and emotional speeches are frequent. Breathlessness and panic are common. In the fi lmed gothic, screaming is common. 18. The Sublime: The definition of this key term has long been a contested term, but the idea of the sublime is essential to an understanding of Gothic poetics and, especially, the attempt to defend or justify the literature of terror.Put basically (and this really is basic Ã¢â¬â a fuller understanding of the Sublime would be useful to students of Wordsworth or any Gothic Literature), the Sublime is an overpowering sense of the greatness and power of nature, which can be uplifting, aweinspiring and terrifying, caused by experience of beauty, vastness or grandeur. Sublime moments lead us to consider the place of humanity in the universe, and the power exhibited in the world. 19. Darkness as intrinsic to humanity:Generally speaking, gothic literature delves into the macabre nature of humanity in its quest to satiate mankind's intrinsic desire to plumb the depths of terror. 0. Necromancy This is the black art of communicating with the dead. This is usually done to obtain information about the future, but can also be used for other purposes, such as getting the dead to perform deeds of which humans are not capable. The conjurer often stood in a circle, such as a pentagram, in order to protect himself from the dead spirit, yet he was often overpowered by the spirit. Examples: The most famous examples of necromancy can be found in literary renditions of the Faust legend, from Marlowe to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe to Byron with his Manfred.In these works, Faust not only speaks with the devil in order to strike a deal but necromantically invokes various dead, famous figures from the past for his amusement and edification. 21. Blood -This is a prominent symbol in Gothic works often intimating the paradox of the human condition; blood can represent both life and death, or both guilt (e. g. , murder) and innocence (e. g. , redemptive blood). Consider references to blood in Ã¢â¬ËMacbeth?, Byron's Manfred and Mary Shelley's Frankenste in. 22.Marriage as Resolution: The importance of marriage in this scheme cannot be overstated. Not only does movement toward matrimony in the Gothic's present trigger the appearance of the buried past, but that buried past itself always contains information tied to the institutions of matrimony or family interest. 23. Sadism : The word Ã¢â¬Å"sadismÃ¢â¬ was coined to describe the writings of Donatien-AlphonseFrancois, the Marquis de Sade. Sadism is a sexual perversion where one person gains gratification by inflicting physical or mental pain on others.It can also mean a delight in torment or excessive cruelty. (Heathcliff in Ã¢â¬ËWuthering Heights? / or the husband in Ã¢â¬ËThe Bloody Chamber?. 24. Strong Moral Closure: If de Sade is to be believed, the Gothic genre arose as a response to the brutality and bloodiness of Romantic society, and it as part of this response that Gothic fiction usually contains a strong moral. 25. The metonymy of gloom and horror. Metonymy is a subt ype of metaphor, in which something (like rain) is used to stand for something else (like sorrow).For example, the film industry likes to use metonymy as a quick shorthand, so we often notice that it is raining in funeral scenes. Note that the following metonymies for Ã¢â¬Å"doom and gloomÃ¢â¬ all suggest some element of mystery, danger, or the supernatural. wind, especially howling doors grating on rusty hinges footsteps approaching lights in abandoned rooms characters trapped in a room ruins of buildings thunder and lightning rain, especially blowing sighs, moans, howls, eerie sounds clanking chains gusts of wind blowing out lights doors suddenly slamming shut aying of distant dogs (or wolves? ) crazed laughter 26. The vocabulary of the gothic. The constant use of the appropriate vocabulary set creates the atmosphere of the gothic.Here as an example are some of the words (in several categories) that help make up the vocabulary of the gothic in The Castle of Otranto: Mystery dia bolical, enchantment, ghost, goblins, haunted, infernal, magic, magician, miracle, necromancer, omens, ominous, portent, preternatural, prodigy, prophecy, secret, sorcerer, spectre, spirits, strangeness, talisman, vision Fear, Terror, or Sorrow fflicted, affliction, agony, anguish, apprehensions, apprehensive, commiseration, concern, despair, dismal, dismay, dread, dreaded, dreading, fearing, frantic, fright, frightened, grief, hopeless, horrid, horror, lamentable, melancholy, miserable, mournfully, panic, sadly, scared, shrieks, sorrow, sympathy, tears, terrible, terrified, terror, unhappy, wretched Surprise alarm, amazement, astonished, astonishment, shocking, staring, surprise, surprised, thunderstruck, wonder Haste anxious, breathless, flight, frantic, hastened, hastily, impatience, impatient, impatiently, impetuosity, precipitately, running, sudden, suddenlyAnger anger, angrily, choler, enraged, furious, fury, incense, incensed, provoked, rage, raving, resentment, temper, wrath , wrathful, wrathfully Largeness enormous, gigantic, giant, large, tremendous, vast 27. Elements of Romance In addition to the standard gothic aspects, many gothic novels contain elements of romance as well. Elements of romance include these: Powerful love. Heart stirring, often sudden, emotions create a life or death commitment. Many times this love is the first the character has felt with this overwhelming power. Uncertainty of reciprocation. What is the beloved thinking?Is the lover's love returned or not? Unreturned love. Someone loves in vain (at least temporarily). Later, the love may be returned. Tension between true love and father's control, disapproval, or choice. Most often, the father of the woman disapproves of the man she loves. Lovers parted. Some obstacle arises and separates the lovers, geographically or in some other way. One of the lovers is banished, arrested, forced to flee, locked in a dungeon, or sometimes, disappears without explanation. Or, an explanation ma y be given (by the person opposing the lovers' being together) that later turns out to be false.Gothicism: In literary criticism, this refers to works characterised by a taste for the medieval or morbidly attractive. A gothic novel prominently features elements of horror, the supernatural, gloom, and violence: clanking chains, terror, charnel houses, ghosts, medieval castles, and mysteriously slamming doors. The term Ã¢â¬Å"gothic novelÃ¢â¬ is also applied to novels that lack elements of the traditional Gothic setting but that create a similar atmosphere of terror or dread. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein is perhaps the best-known English work of this kind. Grotesque 1) This term originated from oddly shaped ornaments found within Roman dwellings, or grottoes, during the first century. From a literary standpoint, this term implies a mutation of the characters, plants and/or animals. This mutation transforms the normal features and/or behaviours into veritable extremes that are meant to be frightening and/or disturbingly comic (Cornwell 273. (2) The term grotesque also defines a work in which two separate modes, comedy and tragedy, are mixed. The result is a disturbing fiction wherein comic circumstances prelude horrific tragedy and vice versa.
Friday, January 10, 2020
There are four Theories of Motivation. They are Expectancy Theory, Goal Setting Theory, Equity Theory, and Job Enrichment Theory. Each could be used, individually or all could be used in combination, to help motivate employees to perform their jobs to the best of their abilities to achieve the success they desire. When employees are motivated and feel appreciated they tend to care more about their jobs and become more productive, which in turn can help the business be more successful. In the case study of Two Men and A Truck and Mary Ellen Sheets the Expectancy Theory and the Job Enrichment Theory were used to motivate her to grow her business. Even though Mary Ellen Sheets started the company she knew that with hard work she could grow her business and make it successful. Mary Ellen Sheets also understood that if she applied herself and worked hard she would have the success she desired. Even though she made many mistakes she was motivated to continue on and make her business a success. To create high performing teams Mary Ellen Sheets established Stick Men University where her franchise owners and movers could learn the basics such as answering phone calls to the final handshake after the move is completed. There is also a two story house and a computer lab. In the two story house the movers are taught the proper ways to move, and in the computer lab franchise owners are taught to pay royalties electronically and communicate with other franchise owners about what is working and what is not (Jones, 2007).The University gave all employees and franchise owners consistency in what was expected as well the ability to communicate with other franchise owners. In the case study for Siemens and Klaus Kleinfeld the Expectancy Theory and the Goal Setting Theory are used. Kleinfeld was motivated and he helped motivate all of the workers to pull together to save their jobs. By working hard and applying themselves they were able to grow Siemens Medical into Siemens most profitable business. He had goals that required workers to work flexibleÃ shifts and also to work weekends to speed up production. Kleinfeld created high performing teams by emphasizing common goals and creating opportunities for joint gain. A common goal was to save the medical division of the company and make it successful. Many of the employees fought the changes but eventually pulled together and made the division profitable. Creating opportunities for joint gain allowed the employees and the company to come up with ideas that allowed them to be more productive therefore saving their jobs. Depending on the situation, job, company, and employee one, two, or all of the motivation theories can be used to help motivate employees to become more productive. Also an employee that is motivated and challenged to perform better will usually be more invested in the company and be more willing to work harder to achieve the success they desire. Reference Jones. (2007). Motivating and Managing People and Groups in Business Organizations. In Jones, Introduction To Business: How Companies Create Value For People. McGraw-Hill Companies.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
By 2030, the urban population will reach 5 billion Ã¢â¬â 60 % of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population.It is clear that the development of urban areas holds the key to many of the challenges we face in our interactions with the environment. Climate change has become one of the most challenging global environmental issues facing humanity.. Urban households, industries and infrastructures are key sources of greenhouse gases. Urban areas concentrate populations, economic activities and built environments, thus increasing their risk from floods, heat waves, and other climate and weather hazards that climate change is expected to aggravate. Many of our urban centres are in the very areas (e.g. coasts) that will make them more vulnerable to adverse climate change events. But beyond the obvious risks and vulnerabilities that climate change will bring to our urban areas, these same urban centres will, by necessity, play a pivotal role in our mitigation and adaptation efforts as well. Urban centre s are hubs of development, sources of innovations and policy responses to reduce the emissions of heat trapping gases and adapt to the impacts of climate change. It is this combination, within urban areas, of increased vulnerabilities along with increased opportunities that can incubate important synergies and resources for creating innovative adaptation and mitigation strategies. (UN-Habitat. 2006). Urbanizationis, in statistical terms, an increasing proportion of a population living in settlements defined asShow MoreRelatedGlobal Environmental Issues1118 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnvironmental issues are a major problem in our world, and all people need to recognize the need for our social obligations. The effect of humans on our planet has increased significantly over the years. Not only is the population constantly growing, there is Ã¢â¬Å"new technical power to dig deeper, cut faster, build larger, and traverse more quickly great distances in automobiles, trucks, and planesÃ¢â¬ (Brown, 2001). Severe environmental issues have appeared throughout the world as a result. It isRead MoreThe Importance Of Future Research On The Future1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfurther innovative studies in the emerging field of environmental sciences towards conservation, detect environmental controlling parameters, biological function of living organisms and their interaction with the environme nt, and develop new technologies to protect the environment and public health. My challenge is to get a more complete picture of these issues in the near future, which could help to resolve the problems of global climate change and use the CO2 and other greenhouse gases for beneficialRead MoreEnvironmental Issue Of Environmental Issues1746 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesJennifer Manfredi INRI 1015 4/18/15 Environmental Issues One of the greatest things which is being talked about presently is the growing concerns of scientists, environmentalists, and people of this planet when it comes to environmental issues. Environmental issues is something that is discussed frequently in the news, in politics, and in classrooms around the world. More and more we are becoming informed and aware of the current and ever facing environmental crises that are taking place aroundRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effects On The Global Climate876 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOne of the major problems confronting today society is global warming. Everyone is talking about global warming, which is also known as Ã¢â¬Å"climate changeÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"green is the new blackÃ¢â¬ . However, like Mark Twain once said, Ã¢â¬Å"everyone talks about the weather but nobody does anything about itÃ¢â¬ (1897 P. 8) According to dictionary.com global warming can be described as Ã¢â¬Å"an increase in the average temperature worldwide believed to be caused by greenhouse effect.Ã¢â¬ We are the most responsible for this situationRead MoreClimate Change Is A Serious Problem1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesClimate Change is a Serious Problem to the Planet Ã¢â¬Å"Climate change is happening, humans are causing it, and I think it is perhaps the most serious environmental issue facing us.Ã¢â¬ This quote from Bill Nye illustrates the serious nature of climate change. Climate change is the most serious issue that is plaguing the world. Global temperatures have been increasing in recent years and it is clear that our climate is changing. Climate change is the change of temperature and weather in our environmentRead MoreEssay On The Future1090 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfor further innovative studies in the emerging field of environmental sciences towards conservation, detect environmental controlling parameters, biological function of living organisms and their interaction to the environment, and develop new technologies to protect the environment and public health. My challenge is to get a more complete picture of these issues in the near future which could help to resolve the problems of global climate change and use the CO2 and other g reenhouse gases for beneficialRead MoreClimate Change Is A Real Threat1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesClimate Change is a Real Threat Ã¢â¬Å"Climate change is happening, humans are causing it, and I think it is perhaps the most serious environmental issue facing us.Ã¢â¬ This quote from Bill Nye illustrates the serious nature of climate change. Climate change is the most serious issue that is plaguing the world. Global temperatures have been increasing in recent years and it is clear that our climate is changing. Climate change is the change of temperature of our environment. A majority of scientists suspectRead MoreHow Does the United Nations Support Environmental Sustainability?865 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages(Wikipedia). Ã¢â¬ËEnsuring environmental sustainabilityÃ¢â¬â¢, climate change being one of the major factors, is one of the millennium development goals of the UN. The United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP, along with many organizations/agencies under the UN, collaboratively work towards achieving this goal. About the Chosen Aspect of Study Ã¢â¬ËHow does the United Nations support the millennium development goal of promoting environmental sustainability by limiting climate change in South and North AmericaRead More Norway and Its Climate Changes1054 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Climate change is a major global issue and is a pressing issue in Norway as well. The country has ratified the Kyoto Protocol and signed on to other treaties regarding the state of the earth. Similar to its history, current climate changes may have adverse effects on the culture and economy of Norway. Two significant climate change issues in Norway are carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions and the warming of the Arctic Ocean; both have important impacts on both Norway and the world. Climate changeRead MoreThe Changing Relationship Between Nature And Society1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesweather patterns and devastating storms are abruptly putting an end to the long-running debate over whether or not climate change is real. Not only is it real, it s here, and its effects are giving rise to a frighteningly new global phenomenon: the man-made natural disaster.Ã¢â¬ (Obama, 2006). In this speech Obama spoke honestly and truthfully about the current situation society is facing with nature. In this paper I will be discussing numerous topics related to the natural environment. I will analyze
Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Enron: Questionable Accounting Leads to Collapse Enron, a provider of natural gas, electricity, and communications began when two large gas pipeline companies merged together in 1985. CEO Jeffrey Skilling, CFO Andrew Fastow, and Chairman Ken Lay worked diligently throughout the 1990s to build the company to be the largest most successful of its time. Having its name in Wall Street was becoming a norm for the company as it grew beyond all hopes and expectations. The company had become unstoppable as shares increased and partnerships became stronger. Believing so much in the company Business Ethics states, Ã¢â¬Å"Jeffrey Skilling went so far as to tell utility executives at a conference he was going to Ã¢â¬Å"eat their lunchÃ¢â¬ (Farrell, Fraedrich,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Business Insider states,Ã¢â¬ After his Enron retirement became worthless, Maddox and his wife Phyllis had to lease their suburban Houston home and move to an old family farmhouse in the East Texas town of Van. They also went back to work. Phyllis Maddox, a retired teacher, became a substitute teacher while her husband mowed lawns and pastures.Ã¢â¬ The reality that came soon after the company collapsed was not only felt by shareholders but by hardworking Americans as well. The loss of retirement funds set many individuals back and left them with literally nothing in return for so many prior years of hard work. Ways EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s bankers, auditors, and attorneys contributed to EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s demise. The Economist states, Ã¢â¬Å"In America, well-policed stock markets, fearsome regulators at the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), stern accounting standards in the form of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), and the perceived audit skills of the big five accounting firms, have long been seen as crucial to the biggest, most liquid and most admired capital markets in the world.Ã¢â¬ The controversial subject of who is to blame for EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s fraud able to stay hidden for such an extended amount of time is distributed among three top employees mentioned along with other close working individuals from other companies. The ways auditors, attorneys, and bankers contributed is by their lack of concern and ability to convince themselves the fraud was truly not happening among one ofShow MoreRelatedEnron And Its Impact On Corporate Business Practices1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnron Enron is a company infamous for one of the largest scandals in American corporate history. Over twenty thousand employees and thousands of outside investors had billions of dollars worth of shares in the company that positioned the company to be valuated at about 70 billion dollars with shares trading at about 90 dollars a share in 2001. However, from August to November 2001 Enron s stock value dropped to $0.26, and those who had invested in Enron lost billions of dollars within a coupleRead MoreThe Rise and Fall of Enron1532 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMost of the world has heard of Enron, the American, mega-energy company that Ã¢â¬Å"cooked their booksÃ¢â¬ ( ) and cost their investors billions of dollars in lost earnings and retirement funds. While much of the controversy surrounding the Enron scandal focused on the losses of investors, unethical practices of executives and questionable accounting tactics, there were many others within close proximity to the turmoil. It begs the question- who was really at fault and what has been done to prevent it fromRead MoreEssay about Enron: Who was at fault?1664 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMost of the world has heard of Enron, the American, mega-energy company that Ã¢â¬Å"cookedÃ¢â¬ their books (Gupta, Weirich Turner, 2013) and cost their investors billions of dollars in lost earnings and retirement funds. While much of the controversy surrounding the Enron scandal focused on the l osses of investors, unethical practices of executives and questionable accounting tactics, there were many others within close proximity to the turmoil. It begs the question- who was really at fault and what hasRead MoreThe Rise And Fall Of Enron1008 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Enron began as an energy company in 1985. After the deregulation of oil and gas in the U.S., Enron lost itsÃ¢â¬â¢ exclusive rights to natural gas pipelines. The CEO, Kenneth Lay then hired a consulting firm to reinvent the company in order to make up lost profits. He hired Jeffery Skilling, who was in banking, specifically; asset and liability management. Under the topic Ã¢â¬Å"The Beginning Presages the EndÃ¢â¬ , C. William Thomas (2002) writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks to the young consultant, the company createdRead MoreThe Smartest Guys Of The Room, Or The Most Unethical?1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesscandals from ethical misconduct within Enron, the proper course of action was once questionable, but now revealed. Nevertheless, organizations continue to struggle with moral decision-making on a daily basis as they consider the cost of making such decisions. Throughout this paper, I will discuss the key components of the ethical decision making process, the connection between Enron, an d personal experience of making ethical decisions from employment history. Ethics are extremely importantRead MoreEssay on Analysis of the Enron/Arthur Anderson Scandal1558 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEnron and Arthur Anderson were both giants in their own industry. Enron, a Texas based company in the energy trading business, was expanding rapidly in both domestic and global markets. Arthur Anderson, LLC. (Anderson), based out of Chicago, was well established as one of the big five accounting firms. But the means by which they achieved this status became questionable and eventually contributed to their demise. Enron used what if often referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"creativeÃ¢â¬ accounting methods, this resultedRead MoreNorthern Natural Gas Company Management1225 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Enron Corporation was once known as Northern Natural Gas Company, Founded in 1932 in Omaha, Nebraska as a provider of natural gas. Through its early stages, Northern Natural Gas Company was unsuccessful in their business venture. They experienced problems in persuading consumers to use natural gas to heat their homes because of fear that natural gas leaks lead to explosions. Thanks to the great depression, many people were taking the risk because of how relatively cheap natural gas was. As theRead MoreEnron Corporation: An Electivity and Natural Gas Company1621 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEnron Corporation was formed in 1985 when Houston Natural Gas merged with InterNorth to create an electricity and natural gas company that would eventually become Enron. After Houston Natural Gas merged with InterNorth, the former chairman of Houston Natural Gas, Kenneth Lay, was appointed as CEO of Enron. The Chief Executive Officer of Enron, Kenneth LayÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate goal was to make Enron Ã¢â¬Å"the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest company,Ã¢â¬ but unfortunately he failed to achieve his goal. During the 1990s, Enron wasRead MoreThe Ethics Of Enron Oxley Act1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Houston based c orporation of Enron was once considered a top company, until its demise from a complex accounting scheme. The company that was forced to declare bankruptcy and lay off many employees; also resulted in thousands of others losing a significant portion of their retirement funds that were invested in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s stock (Ferrell, Fraedrich, Ferrell, 2013). Additionally, the perceived scandal propagated concern of accounting practices of corporations and initiated new reporting practicesRead MoreOrganizational Culture, Management Philosophy And Ethics999 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesorganization; from operations, marketing, and, accounting. No matter the size, industry or level of profitability of an organization, business ethics are one of the most important aspects of long-term success. According to WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s dictionary, ethics can be defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good and badÃ¢â¬ these rules influence every aspect of our societ y (Investopedia, N.D.) (WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s, N.D.). While sometimes overlooked, accounting plays a large role in many organizations
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Unconventional in terms of oil and gas simply means low permeability rock where the pores are poorly linked thereby making it difficult for oil and gas to move through the rock. The development of unconventional reservoirs provides new challenges that might be overcome with new techniques and approaches This has radically changed perceptions of gas supply availability in the US and elsewhere by originating a revolution in the global gas markets. The revolution was made possible through advanced technological extraction of using a mixture of water sand and chemicals to fracture rock layers. These techniques have been known since the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s but were only became fruitful in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s by producing shale gas in commercial quantity. Shale gas has been referred to as the future of gas supply with greater potential. However, it has been stated the fracking process can pollute ground water leading to environmental degradation. Thus the revolution has shown and given room for new innovations in the industry and created competitive, fair and equal chance of succeeding for other Countries that intend to adopt the pattern. It has been argued that Conventional oil production has reached its peak and is now on a terminal, global decline however, it must be noted that oil is not finishing anytime soon but certain forms of it are being experimented in terms of chemicals, geography, geological and economically. Others allege the era of oil is coming to an end. But certainly notShow MoreRelatedFracking Should Not Be Banned1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFracking is a pressurized, chemically treated mixture of water and sand used to release and extract natural gas and petroleum from shale rock. The process involves a well drilled vertically to the desired depth, then turns ninety degrees and continues horizontally for thousands of feet into the shale believed to contain the trapped natural gas. A mix of water, sand, and various chemicals are pumped into the well at high pressure in order to create fissures in the shale through which the gas can escapeRead MoreThe Need, Risks And Impacts1396 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages FRACKING-Ã¢â¬Å"The Need, Risks and ImpactsÃ¢â¬ Hydraulic Fracking, which is the extraction of natural gas which was earlier protected, has become a major problem today. It is an environmental as well as a health hazard. The large firms which are linked to fracking have tried to justify fracking by citing that the benefits of it outweigh the harm that it might potentially cause. But before buying that argument, it is important for us to understand if the idea of fracking is really good for a long term scenarioRead MoreHydraulic Fracturing And Fracking : A Controversial Topic Across The Globe1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHydraulic Fracturing or Fracking, as it more commonly known, is a very controversial topic across the globe. In the United States, its status remains the same. Hydraulic fracturing is a method of oil and natural gas production. The process includes the drilling of pipes 1-1.5 miles within the earth. After that pipe is secured and has an impermeable layer around the pipe, a tool that creates small holes within the impe rmeable layer is sent down through the pipe. It creates holes in the pipe that allowsRead MoreThe Invention Of Our Modern Day Fracking1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof any treatment polluting an aquifer Ã¢â¬â not one.Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Shooters-A Fracking HistoryÃ¢â¬ ). This statement may lead you to believe there is no need for concern, but there is a big pink elephant in the room. Arguments against these statements would prove futile, at a first glance, but understanding the true cost, to the environment and our safety could prove more valuable than the money earned. The beginnings of our modern day fracking process reside in a U.S. Patent No. 59,936, issued to a Col. Edward RobertsRead MoreThe, A Documentary By Josh Fox1296 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesinformative film about the negative externalities that consumers have to incur since they live in close proximity to a hydrofracking facility. Throughout the film, Fox travels around the country and meets with families that have been negatively impacted by fracking companies moving into their communities. Due to the amount of pollution that hydrofracking can cause, many of the families that Fox meets with no longer have the luxury of clean water supplied through their faucets. GasLand really opened up my eyesRead MoreA Brief Note On Oil And Natural Gas1085 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI. Slide One: Hydraulic Fracturing Think about what you may know about environmental issues today. Some of you may say global climate change. Others may conclude that pollution is a prevalent problem in the world today. Even more of you could declare that our biggest setback is the quickly dwindling natural resources in America and the world. What if I told you that there was an issue that encompasses these environmental issues as well as others? (Next Slide) II. Slide Two: Energy Issues TodayRead MoreGlobal Warming And The Negative Environmental Impacts1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdebated about topics surrounding global warming and human contribution is fracking. Fracking is the process of shooting a high pressure liquid into subterranean rocks in order for the gas to come out which is done usually to be able to sell gas at a cheaper price. Modern day fracking did not become popular until the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s when a guy named George P. Mitchell combined hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling. Although fracking does make buying gas cheaper people forget to look at the negative impactsRead MoreThe Economic Report On Fracking, Is It Worth It?1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWeekly Economic Report Fracking, is it Worth it? Ron Withall Business 630, Dr. Lynn Reaser SUBJECT Our dependence on foreign oil and natural gas has created a vulnerability affecting our national security and economic stability. Up until this past decade there was an appreciable decline in our oil and natural gas production in the US and we were tied to world market price fluctuations. Oil prices and natural gas prices rose and fell based on OPECÃ¢â¬â¢s and other large oil and natural gas producersÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreEssay on Natural Gas Fracking Risks1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis produced when trapped gas is released above ground. Hydraulic fracturing or fracking is a process that extracts natural gas from the ground. As harmless as the billion dollar producing oil companies would want us to believe, environmental groups, scientists, and average citizens have raised concerns about the negative impact of hydraulic fracking on the environment and surrounding communities. Hydraulic fracking is used in the natural gas drilling booms, like the one in Louisiana. Ã¢â¬Å"ModernRead MoreFracking Of The United States911 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages101 8 September, 2015 Fracking in The United States Fracking is a term that is used as a shorthand term referring to hydraulic fracturing. This is a type of drilling used for oil and natural gas within the Earth. Fracking has been used commercially for the last 65 years in the U.S... With the new technology advances in the field along with advanced hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling is responsible for the U.S. surging in the oil and gas production. Fracking is allowing the U.S. to