Saturday, May 23, 2020
Ã¢â¬ ¢ To help industries adopt low-carbon technologies through programs and services designed to help reduce greenhouse gas pollution while also reducing costs. Technologies will help to improve energy productivity and help industrial plants modernize so they can thrive in a competitive low-carbon economy. Key Point 2 Ã¢â¬ ¢ The second initiative will be to help the agri-food sector adopt low-carbon technologies through the reduction of emissions and retrofitting agricultural facilities. Both of these together will address expanding technologies and practices to reduce emissions and to support the transition to low-carbon, indoor agricultural facilities. Action Area 5: Collaboration with Indigenous Communities Key Point 1 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ontario is looking to partner with First Nation communities to ensure a transition to non-fossil fuel energy that will minimize the impact on the communities. This can potentially be done through investments in energy efficiency, micro-grids and renewable energy. Remote communities will be connected to the provincial electricity grid through the partnership of the federal government and First Nations. Renewable energy such as biomass, solar and waterpower will be the focus of the projects. A fund will be established for community-level greenhouse gas pollution reduction projects and for community energy and climate action planning. Jobs will be established among post-secondary institutions that are low-carbon along with training partnerships. This initiativeShow MoreRelatedCsr Programs And Corporate Social Responsibility1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSince 1998, Bank of America has become one of the most successful financial institutions in the industry. With the mission to Ã¢â¬ Å"make financial lives better, through the power of every connectionÃ¢â¬ , Bank of America has maintained aligning operation with its vision. While assisting its clients understand their money, the company also puts a lot of effort into helping the communities by executing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It is undeniable that the company has successfully addressed many criticalRead MoreThe Marketing Environment Southwest Airlines944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Marketing Environment Southwest Airlines Every industry from healthcare to manufacturing faces environmental challenges. Many thoughtful companies respond through various marketing strategies. The airline industry, in particular, seen a host of environmental factors since 2001 including air quality, climate change, emissions, and noise regulations to name a few. Southwest airlines, in particular, have taken specific tactics to both blunt and exploit these environmental factors. As a result, SouthwestRead MoreStrategic Goals Of Ups, A Service Provider Of Choice1335 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexpectations. The firm has established several short and long term strategic goals to remain a service provider of choice and to attract new clientele. Goal setting is a critical component of business that allows business owners and its team members the opportunity to improve or incorporate business strategies designed to elevate the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Two primary strategic goals of UPS is to grow its value added services of UPS Store s by targeting small businesses, and continue to expand its internationalRead MoreThe And Best Practices For Transportation Partnership Program1226 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSmartWay Transport Partnership program and how Ship Greene can meet its sustainability objectives by joining it. Additional best practices for freight trucking sustainability improvements and related case studies will also be examined. Best Practice 1. SmartWay Program (Include table for Smartway transport partnership program) Costs vs. Benefits-Add costs benefits about load matching and route planning EPAÃ¢â¬â¢s voluntary public-private SmartWay Transport Partnership Program, was launched in 2004 as aRead MoreThe Agricultural And Food Sciences1713 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUNIVERSITY OF MANITOBA FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD SCIENCES Internationally Educated Agrologists Post-Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IEAP) AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA AGRI 4000-PRACTICING THE PROFESSION OF AGROLOGIST Nathaniel Akinkunmi 7764897 Introduction The agriculture industry in Nigeria has opportunities that are not maximized due to challenges it is facing. Background Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with a population of 177,155,754 and was governed byRead MoreDefinition Of Corporate Social Responsibility1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDirectors must also comply with these guidelines as well as a separate, Directors Code of Conduct and Ethics. Furthermore, RogerÃ¢â¬â¢s combats anti-corruption with their whistle blower problem called Rogers STAR, a hotline operated by an independent service provider for employees to report any ethical or financial misconduct. The second issue under fair operating practices, fair competition, is approached by Rogers Telecom in ensuring customer transparency. Customer transparency allows for consumersRead MoreTransportation And Distribution Of Transport1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesneeded to supply the demand within the area. Substantial number of trucks and vehicles along the road causes congestion and traffic in which led to carbon emission exaltation. 2. Logistics Scheme Plowden and Buchan (1995) states Ã¢â¬Å"Freight transport is essential to the modern economy. An efficient system must provide the customer with a good service at a reasonable cost.Ã¢â¬ Conversely, with the development of bottleneck in city areas has called into attention to check our capability to bring aboutRead MoreDescription Of Microsoft Energy Policy1837 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesDescription of Microsoft Energy Policy Microsoft in May 2012 made a commitment to go carbon neutral. The goal is to achieve zero emissions for their data centres, software development labs, offices, and employee business air travel in over 100 countries around the world. To achieve this goal, they have implemented an internal carbon fee policy that places a price on carbon used by the business. This is to drive energy efficiency, increase the use of renewable energy, thus meeting their goal of reducingRead MoreEnergy Management in Thermal Power Plants895 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessteam raised in a boiler is expanded through a steam turbine that drives an electric generator. In a thermal power plant, the chemical energy stored in fossil fuels such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas is converted successively into thermal energy, mechanical energy and finally electrical energy for continuous use and distribution across a wide geographic area. Thermal Power plants have very high availability. Their unplanned or forced outage rates a re very low. Thermal Power Plant assets need toRead MoreCorporate Social Responsibility : Bank Of America1776 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSince 1998, Bank of America has become one of the most successful financial institutions in the industry. With the mission to Ã¢â¬Å"make financial lives better, through the power of every connectionÃ¢â¬ , Bank of America has operated its business align with its purpose. While assisting its clients understand their money, the company also put on a lot of effort on helping the communities by executing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It is undeniable that the company has successfully addressed many critical
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
As technology advances so does the threat to our privacy as citizens, we enter into this technological world worried only with whatÃ¢â¬â¢s new and hot and not diving deeper into how these devices are collecting data on us. One of these new devices is called a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) itÃ¢â¬â¢s a wireless system of both what is called tags and readers that pick up radio waves and hold information. The many uses include Inventory control, Equipment tracking, Out-of-bed detection and fall detection (FDA). Companies that employ such things as RFID tags morally should inform those who would be impacted by their use. On the CPSC website it has the Ã¢â¬Å"Federal Hazardous Substances Act or FHSAÃ¢â¬ it states Ã¢â¬Å"The Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA) requires precautionary labeling on the immediate container of hazardous household products to help consumers safely store and use those products and to give them information about immediate first aid steps to take if an accident happens. (CPSC) It was hard to find a specific need for labeling or informing of such a product as the RFIDs if they are integrated into regular business practice, such as mentioned grocery usage or healthcare uses. There has never been a warning label or label of any kind on webcams for their potential risk which became reality being hacked and streamed by strangers. CBS reported on the issue in 2014 of Russian hackers tapping into hundreds of thousands of private webcams and streaming what is shown on th e web.Show MoreRelatedRfid ( Radio Frequency Identification ) Essay1383 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRFID (radio frequency identification) uses radio waves to transmit information between RFID tags (chips) and RFID readers (What is RFID?, n.d.). There are two basic types of RFID tags. Active tags are larger and more expensive because they require an independent power supply to function, passive tags are cheaper, smaller and do not need a separate power supply (The Different Types of RFID Systems, n.d.). Initially, we will be implementing the use of passive RFID tags, which will help control theRead MoreRadio Frequency Identification ( Rfid )1909 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesRADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID) IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT Nor Faridah Omar AbstractÃ¢â¬â RFID tagging is an ID system that uses low-frequency detection device for the purpose of identifying and tracing. It includes the tag, the device which reads and writes and host system for the application of data collection, processing and transmission which relies on storage and retrieve data remotely using a tag or transponder . RFID tagging is used in supply chain management as an alternative to barcodeRead MoreRadio Frequency Identification : Rfid1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRadio frequency Identification What are RFID? RFID is a term used for Radio frequency Identification. RFID is a developing technology and have many uses in our life. It is a technology which can be used to transfer data wirelessly and using it for tagging the different products. It has various benefits over the the Barcodes. Barcodes can only be used to tag a single object at a time.So it s a time consuming option. On the other hand use of RFID to tag objects can solve this problem. It can beRead MoreRadio Frequency Identification ( Rfid )1582 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Ã¢â¬Æ' Table of Contents Introduction 2 What is RFID? 2 RFID in Supply chain management 2 How has RFID implementation improved Supply chain performance at Wal-Mart 3 Impact of RFID technology on SCM Effectiveness Ã¢â¬â Food Industry in Iran 3 Short comings of RFID 5 Future of RFID 5 References 6 Introduction In this paper we will discuss how Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) influences the role and importance of supply chain management in organizations. This paper will also discussRead MoreRadio Frequency Identification ( Rfid )1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Message Authentication in RFIDÃ¢â¬ Proposal for topic Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the remote utilization of electromagnetic fields to exchange information, for the reasons of consequently distinguishing and following labels joined to questions. The labels contain electronically put away data. A few labels are fueled by electromagnetic impelling from attractive fields created close to the peruse. A few sorts gather vitality from the examining radio waves and go about as a detached transponderRead MoreRadio Frequency Identification ( Rfid )925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesRADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION (RFID) Son Le, ITM 435 Ho Son Ngo, Ph. D Ã¢â¬Æ' TABLE OF CONTENTS Ã¢â¬Æ' The name Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) dates back to the early 1990s. The technology has roots in radar-related work done in the 1940s. During World War II, the military used transponders for the important purpose of identifying a returning aircraft as friend or foe. These systems remain in use today. The military continues to invest in new uses of radio and radar technologies that ultimately couldRead MoreRfid : Radio Frequency Identification1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) is a chip that transmit data to receivers. RFID is use vastly in many areas of the health care operations. Each chips send a unique signal to where it could be located. RFID can be used for different reasons for instance; tracking pharmaceuticals inventory in a health care facility, collecting data to identify providers to ensure efficiency in care, tracking and monitoring infants while they are hospitalized and ensuringRead MoreRfid ( Radio Frequency Identification )1256 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesINTRODUCTION RFID (radio frequency identification) is a technology that was originally developed for use in transponders in aircrafts during the Second World War. RFID is an information and sensor technology that can be attached or inserted into objects to collect data through reader devices and tags. It uses wireless radio waves to transmit and uses devices such as RFID readers, RFID tags, and middleware. The RFID system consists of three components 1. The transponder, which is a small electronicRead MoreRfid And Radio Frequency Identification1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages1. INTRODUCTION NFC is an extension of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification). RFID combines the interface of a smart card and a reader into a single device. NFC is a short range wireless technology that provides secured two-way interaction between electronic devices. Here, the communications are established in a simple way i.e. it does not require any special set-up by the users which is required for many wireless communication technologies. NFC provides users the contactless communication i.e. accessRead MoreRadio Frequency Identification ( Rfid ) Essay2037 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAbstractÃ¢â¬âRadio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of people and products, and is getting more involved in our daily lives. RFID consists of a RFID tag or transponder, a RFID reader or transceiver, and the data processing system has been evolving with time. RFID technology is also helpful when used with money, but there is a main limitation while using RFID technology. It is privacy and security. That is why, Electrical and computer engineers work with this
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Financial risk management can be defined as the definitive sourcing of practical guidance on market management and credit risk. It can be subdivided into two parts, which are, the macro and the micro risk management. There are a number of differences between the two risk management approaches. We will write a custom essay sample on Project Management Integration Framework or any similar topic only for you Order Now For example, in macro risk management, there is application of technology to alleviate financial risks or losses. This procedure can be done by focusing on the risk management of a firm Ã¢â¬â an approach which is unmistakable but takes a lot of time. The major tool used in this undertaking is the use of Ã¢â¬Ëstress testÃ¢â¬â¢ upon portfolios which analyzes the joint force of the wider set of risks in meaningful ways. This process provides more information about the risk and provides an opportunity for diligent analysis (Dash, 2004). Even though the risk usually has been notified to the management, the total risk that is inbuilt into the system is not discarded. The concentration on the financial system thus changes the risk profile in the industry. The risk profile becomes unpredictable and can thus cause serious effects in the business economy. On the other hand, while executing macro risk management, one requires shifting from the notion that the stability of a system is a consequence of the accuracy of individual components. Modern risk managers thus focus on the development of the tools to evaluate the possibility of credit deals which may result in the collapse of the firm. The transmission of risks within a firm may thus result in distress with its associates. Through this strategy, the risk managers can scrutinize how negative financial shocks, such as capital outflows, can negatively magnify a sectorÃ¢â¬â¢s risk. This approach helps them to design and alleviate the risk by adjusting the chief fiscal surplus so as to relieve the shocks. Managers thus have the opportunity to grade their policies. To take precaution on macro risk management, the management should therefore involve the staff who are always involved in the testing of the continuity plans and who are aware of the plans. In addition, this technique helps managers to examine other firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ strategies which have been proven successful. Managers will also analyze othersÃ¢â¬â¢ methods which they can successfully adapt into their circumstances. Conversely, in micro risk management, one starts by providing a general background of financial risk management which illustrates how the risk arose in the firm. This information explores the key concepts used in past risk management and provides a way to curb its reappearance. One thus discovers the main concepts used in risk management and can thus articulate them through well-known financial disasters of the past. One can also devise ways to avoid the risks. This technique allows managers the opportunity to devise the methods to be used to manage the market risk and how to forward it, spot it, and other mechanisms of identifying the risk. This provides a detailed analysis of the models used in pricing the risks and how each model can be used to determine and control risk. After this, the financial risk management will round up the scrutiny and the lessons on the risk management portfolio which gives a firm a clear understanding of the risk and its management. Through this, one can automate audits and susceptible management throughout the running of the firm. Subsequently, the collected automates accessed are then used to control all assets in the firm followed by their testing to identify the most vulnerable risks which may reappear in the firm. This activity provides the most effective way to detect and curb a micro risk at its initial appearance. Reference Dash, J. W. (2004). Quantitative finance and risk management: A physicistÃ¢â¬â¢s approach. Toh Tuck Link, Singapore: World Scientific. How to cite Project Management Integration Framework, Essays Project Management Integration Framework Free Essays There are three main components that must be fulfilled by a project for it to be truly successful; it must be completed within the set budget, schedule and deliver the expected outcome and quality. If one of these components is not met, even if the project is completed, then the project cannot be said to be successful. Project failure is common and may result from various reasons; one of these reasons is that, the project may actually be impossible. We will write a custom essay sample on Project Management Integration Framework or any similar topic only for you Order Now Take for example the failure of the Apollo program, which was American spaceship that landed the first man in moon. This project ran well from the year 1969 up to 1975. Apollo 13 failure of oxygen tank and the Apollo 204 tragedy, which led to loss of lives shows that the mission could no longer be safe as planned. Furthermore, the objectives of the project were impossible to be achieved since the main goal was to find out if human beings could survive in the moon and live comfortably or even in any other planet apart from earth. Incompetent management is another common reason that may lead to project failure. A good example is the disappearing warehouse project for a Software company in the nation. The warehouse varnished not only from the physical view but in watchful eyes of a retailer who was well known in the system of automated distribution. Software glitch somehow had erased the existence of the warehouse and thus goods destined to that warehouse were diverted to other routes where as the goods in that warehouse for a certain time languished. Employees at that missing warehouse kept quiet in that time since they were receiving their pay. As the software glitch was noticed, the warehouse was then sold off and the senior management requested the employees to be quiet on the episode. This led to the failure of that software project. Finally over-constrained is another reason that leads to their failure. Football clubs are good examples. Wenger, the Arsenal club manger had a plan to make the club to continue performing well and win all the trophies. This continued for some time but failed. This football club traces its failure at that period due to over-constrains in the management as well as in the players. This club since then has not been able to win trophies despite its continuous shines in the frequent years before. How to cite Project Management Integration Framework, Essays
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about Ethical Implications of Complexitiesthe . Answer: Introduction In the past, Australias social framework provided with important differences and opportunity and results among the genders which led to Prejudice and discrimination among men and women. In the past 150 years there was a rise in womens rights and privileges therefore Australia turned out to be worlds prejudice and discrimination among men and women. In the past 150 years there was a rise in womens rights and privileges therefore Australia turned out to be worlds initial country second nation which gave females the vote in 1902 (Gonsiorek, 2014). With the changes in social construction of roles of men and women, women got more leverage in fields like education, family and work place. But, there are certain factors of gender inequality which prevailed in modern Australian community as well. The research continues to repeat that businesses with gender diversity in the leadership teams provide with improved and great financial outcomes. The companies where gender diversity happens in leadership teams are seen to be profitable and extra productive than the companies where single gender dominates. There are great economic and social factors for businesses to promote gender diversity at every level. Worldwide study of 2360 firms in 2012 stated that the company with at least single lady on the board did better than firms with none female on board, by 26% over 6 years (Campbell, 2014). Similarly, 2014 Gallup research stated that with 800 firms in retail and hospitality segment, the firms having gender diversity were financially better performers than those which had dominance of single gender (Shannon and Smith, 2017). Gender Inequality and Citizenship Gender inequality is a problem which has got widespread coverage in past 20 years because females have to struggle for overcoming cultural, social and institutional hindrances so that they can get similar opportunities and privileges like males at their workplaces (Fuller, 2008). One more key issue that is faced by females in labour market is that while they enter the workforce again after maternity leaves, theyre unable to get suitable jobs. The career breaks fir to maternity can be linked to downward shift of jobs with low skill needs and makes the employer feel that females are not capable enough to match their male counterparts. These inequalities are present because of many cultural and structural barriers apparent in Australian culture, which can be seen in the place of work. So as to build gender equity in the place of work, gender typecasts have to be removed andaccess to possessions should be made equivalent to both the genders.Arrangements have to be made to lessen inequalities in career prospects, and development, betweengenders. Equality of salary in Australia is of major worry, and has been for an extended phase of time. On no version of Australia's record, have females and males salaries ever been equivalent; somewhat they have forever had a noteworthy gap among them (Headline dominating a Virginia newspapers front page: Gender disparity vexes physicists, 2015). This has observed females to be underestimated, leading to lots of favouritism and suffering in the workplace for females. Males have been dominations the high salary in the place of work of all industries by getting superior wages, over-reward imbursements, superannuation and superior likelihoods of promotion. Laws, rewards and wage rates have been created to attempt and reduce the wage gap, though none have had complete effect in attaining parity. Policies have to be made and applied in the place of work; to attempt and conquer this wage disparity prior to it worsens. Conclusion While there are far less instances of obvious gender-based favouritism in Australia, the development in the direction of true substantive gender impartiality has evidently halted. The significant barrier in Australia to achieving substantive gender oriented equality is efficient gender linked discrimination, described as exercises which are been taken up into the organizations and constitution of Australian culture which have an unfair impact. Instances of this discrimination can be seen in gap among females and males salary owing to rigid work practices, and arrangements which disregard sex discrimination and sexual stalking (Salaries: Gender pay disparity, 2017). In spite of the reality that Australia did lay down world standards in accepting females as important members of society, dealing with these inequalities is the significant technique wherein Australia can move on the way to having proper gender fairness. The confirmation of gender favouritism is rooted in the past, practic e and society. Gender inequality is an extremely hampering disgrace and causes damages of womens psychology of their value and solemnity to themselves and to culture. References Campbell, L. (2014). Ethical implications of complexities in diversity: Response to Hancock.Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(2), pp.112-113. Fuller, J. (2008). Review of Ccommunicating Gender Diversity.Gender and Language, 2(2). Gonsiorek, J. (2014). The second issue of Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity.Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(2), pp.89-89. Headline dominating a Virginia newspapers front page: Gender disparity vexes physicists. (2015).Physics Today. Salaries: Gender pay disparity. (2017).Nature, 543(7645), pp.455-455. Shannon, B. and Smith, S. (2017). Dogma before diversity: the contradictory rhetoric of controversy and diversity in the politicisation of Australian queer-affirming learning materials.Sex Education, 17(3), pp.242-255.
Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Childhood Trauma and Substance Abuse in Adulthood By: Lauren Gonder CA 401 Child Advocacy II: Responses, Dr. Quanda Stevenson Children are precious yet pliable beings. Children develop through their experiences both physically and psychologically . These experiences calibrate the brain and the body to prepare us for the different environments we face. If a child is brought up in a home where they are constantly being abused and/or neglected, they are programed into learning to take care of themselves. Emotional problems arise when a child is faced with abuse and/or neglect. As they grow older, they may be led to become a part of a bad crowd, to feel like they are a part of something , or to self-medicate to block unwanted feelings . There has been a resurgence in the understanding of what makes a person addicted. Early childhood trauma may be the link to substance abuse in adulthood because of neurological anomalies and emotional trauma. Brain plasticity is the brain 's ability to change at any age, whether it be for the best or the worst. How the brain develops and its physical structure can be affected by one's experiences, positive or negative. Positive experiences, like a nurturing upbringing, is where a child will thrive in most conditions. Negative experiences, like abuse and/or neglect, causes elevated levels of stress and can obstruct the brain's development. Not all stress is bad, though. Our brain works like a muscle and learning requires a small amount of stress. It's when the stress is too large, too often, or too erratic for one person to control. Chil d maltreatment effects the brain's normal structure that impact cognitive, behavioral , and social attributes . Studies have proven that children who are mistreated are the causes for the high levels of stress with in turn causes disruptions in the brain's normal structure. These disruptions have bee n studied in neurological scans proving victims of trauma are vulnerable to substance abuse. Emotional or psychological trauma is a form of damage to the mind that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event. Neglect, loss of a parent, witnessing domestic violence, and having a family member who suffers from a mental illness are just a few of the occurrences that promote emotional trauma. The study of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) was studied and proven that different stress-producing experiences that occur during childhood are the explanations of substance abuse and other forms of impulsive disorders. The study calculated the amount of ACE's a person endured, and depending on the quantity of experiences, the greater the probability of becoming an alcoholic or intravenous drug user. The experiences that are extremely traumatic for children are much less traumatic for adults. Children are limited in their ability to make contextual interpretations , lack a frame of reference, and have difficulties making sense of the se experiences. Significant occurrences have a lasting effect on children and are more likely to linger. Children are supposed to be able to rely on their loved ones for support, but when a child's loved ones are the center of the abuse, neglect, or other trauma, family support is not an option. When a person is faced with a difficult situation and has no one to turn to, they will use alcohol or drugs to lessen the effects of being victimized. Self-medication is also modeled from a potential family member' s substance abuse. Having a substance abuse problem on top of early traumatic events only makes recovery that much harder. Having a working knowledge of the events that lead up to substance abuse can better assist medical professionals in the recovery of these dual-disorders. In addition, knowing that early childhood traumatic experiences provoke substance abuse and other reckless addictions, the federal and state institutions, and society as a whole, can work towards preventing child maltreatment. Parents need to be aware of their stresses in knowing that they can be the defining factor in how their child's brain develops. Putting a stop to child maltreatment can reduce the amount of people who develop substance abuse disorders and in turn reduce other contributing factors that hinder society. Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY Felitti, V. J. (2004, February 16). The Origins of
Friday, March 6, 2020
Organizational Behavior Motivation Essay Example Organizational Behavior Motivation Essay Organizational Behavior Motivation Essay MGMT 2008 Organisational Behaviour Motivation Theory Throughout the Caribbean, managers are continually challenged to motivate a workforce to do two things: work towards helping the organization achieve its goals, and to work towards achieving their own personal goals. In order to successfully do this, they must first properly understand the concept of motivation. The Websters New Collegiate Dictionary defines a motive as something (a need or desire) that causes a person to act. Motivation, in turn, is defined as the act or process of providing a motive that causes a person to take some action. In most cases motivation comes from some need that leads to behavior that results in some type of reward when the need is fulfilled. Thus, managers have the responsibility of making employees willing to exert high levels of effort, sufficient to achieve their personal needs as well as the organisations goals. Psychologists have studied human motivation extensively and have derived a variety o f theories about what motivates people. These include theories that focus on motivation being a function of 1) employee needs of various types, 2) extrinsic factors, and 3) intrinsic factors. One major needs-based theory was that of Abraham Maslow which focused on satisfying the needs of employees to keep them motivated. Maslow (1954) proposed a hierarchy of needs that progresses from the lowest, subsistence-level needs to the highest level of self- actualization. Once each level has been met, the theory is that an individual will be motivated by and strive to progress to satisfy the next higher level of need. Basically this hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs. This hierarchy is most often isplayed as a pyramid with the most basic needs at the lowest levels of the pyramid, while the more complex needs are located at the top. Those needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security. As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship, and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the eed for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. Maslow emphasized the importance of self-actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person in order to achieve individual potential, located at the tip of the pyramid. Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are referred to as deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences. The highest-level of the pyramid was termed as growth needs (also known as being-needs or a-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person. Frederick Herzberg (2003) and his Two Factor Theory further modified MasloWs needs theory and consolidated down to two areas of needs that motivated that deal with Job context and lead to Job dissatisfaction (company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, salary, status, and security); while motivators are those factors that deal with Job content nd lead to Job satisfaction (achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility and growth or advancement). Herzbergs findings revealed that certain characteristics of a Job are consistently related to Job satisfaction, while different factors are associated with Job dissatisfaction. The conclusion he drew is that Job satisfaction and Job dissatisfaction are not opposites. The opposite of satisfaction is no satisfaction and the opposite of dissatisfaction is no dissatisfaction. Remedying the causes of dissatisfaction will not create satisfaction. Nor will adding the factors of Job satisfaction eliminate Job dissatisfaction. In order to adequately motivate employees, managers must first removed the sources of Job dissatisfaction and subsequently and those of satisfaction. The search for needs- based motivation theories also leads to McClellands Acquired Needs Theory, which surrounds the idea that needs are acquired throughout life. That is, needs are not genetic, but are learned or developed as a result of ones life experiences (McClelland, 1985). This theory stipulates that there are three major types of needs, hich are the need for achievement (which emphasizes the desires for success, for mastering tasks, and for attaining goals); the need for affiliation (which focuses on the desire for relationships and associations with others); and, the need for power (which relates to the desires for responsibility for, control of, and authority over others). All of these theories approach needs from a somewhat different perspective and are helpful in understanding employee motivation on the basis of needs. However, other theories of motivation also have been posited and require consideration by managers in compiling motivational strategies. Another approach to understanding motivation focuses on external factors and their role in understanding employee motivation. Best known for this is B. F. Skinners (1953) Reinforcement Theory which studied human behavior and proposed that individuals are motivated when their behaviors are reinforced. His theory is comprised of four types of reinforcement. The first two are associated with achieving desirable behaviors, while the last two address undesirable behaviors. Positive reinforcement relates to taking action that rewards positive behaviors; avoidance learning occurs hen actions are taken to reward behaviors that avoid undesirable or negative behaviors. This is sometimes referred to as negative reinforcement. Punishment includes actions designed to reduce undesirable behaviors by creating negative consequences for the individual; and, extincti on represents the removal of positive rewards for undesirable behaviors. Theories that are based on intrinsic factors focus on internal thought processes and perceptions about motivation. Examples of these kinds of theories include Adams Equity Theory which proposes that individuals are otivated when they perceive that they are treated equitably in comparison to others within the organization (Adams, 1963); Vrooms Expectancy Theory which addresses the expectations of individuals and hypothesizes that they are motivated by performance and the expected outcomes of their own behaviors (Vroom, 1964); and, Lockes Goal Setting Theory which hypothesizes that by establishing goals individuals each of these theories deals with a particular aspect of motivation, studies have found it unrealistic to address them in isolation, since these factors often do come nto play in and are important to employee motivation at one time or another. Other approaches to motivation are driven by aspects of management, such as productivity, human resources, and other considerations. The most famous theory in this regard is McGregors Theory X and Theory. Created by Douglas McGregor, this approach again draws upon the work of Herzberg and develops a human resources management approach to motivation. This theory first classifies managers into one of two groups. Theory X managers adopt an authoritarian style and generally believe that the verage person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can; therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives; and the average person prefers to be directed, to avoid responsibility, is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else. Theory Y managers, on the other hand, take a participative management approach and believe that effort in work is as natural as work and play; people will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives, without external control or the threat of unishment; commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement; and people usually accept and often seek responsibility. Altogether, whilst all of the aforementioned theories are helpful in understanding management and motivation from a conceptual perspective, it is important to recognize that most managers draw upon a combination of needs, extrinsic factors, and intrinsic factors in an effort to help motivate employees, to help employees meet their own personal needs and goals, and ultimately to achieve effectiveness and balance within the rganization. Managers should take into account most of the aspects upon which these theories focus, namely expectancy, goal setting, performance, feedback, equity, satisfaction, and commitment for example, when they are developing a motivational strategy for their employees. The literature which surrounds motivation theory suggest a wide range of strategies for managers to implement in seeking to help motivate employees. First off, managers should expect the best from their employees as persons tend to live up to the expectations they and others have of them. (Manton, 2005, p. 292). They should also seek to reward desired behaviours and ensure that rewards are not given for undesirable behaviors and be sure to use many different types of rewards to achieve the desired outcomes (Manton, 2005, p. 295). Allowing subordinates to take responsibility for their own motivation is another strategy. This can be achieved by managers taking steps to deal with problem employees, to understand employees needs, to determine what motivates their employees, to engage employees in the problem-solving process, and to really work hard at resolving, rather than ignoring, difficult employee problems (Nicholson, 2003). Additionally managers show seek to play to the employees strengths, promote high performance, and focus on how they learn. This requires them to know what their employees strengths and weaknesses are, to find out what will be required to get specific employees to perform, and to understand how to capitalize on the ways those employees learn as an alternative method of encouraging and motivating them (Buckingham, 2005). Motivating an employee is a delicate task. Caribbean managers effectively put them in practice. Should these managers place more focus on roviding their employees with sufficient extrinsic rewards for desired performances, there is an increased likelihood that said employees will become motivated. However, creating an environment which facilitates employees satisfaction of intrinsic needs, is equally as important in motivating employees and keeping them motivated. References The Websters New Collegiate Dictionary Herzberg, F. (2003, January). One more time: how do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review. Locke, E. A. , Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Maslow, A. H. 1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper Row. McClelland, D. C. (1985). Human motivation. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: Macmillan. Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York: Wiley. Adams, J. S. (1963, November). Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. Manton, J. (2005). From management to leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Nicholson, N. (2003, January). How to motivate your problem people. Harvard Business Review. Buckingham, M. (2005, March). What great managers do. Harvard Business Review.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Exotic and unique Australia - Essay Example Kangaroo islandÃ¢â¬â¢s economy mainly comprised of agriculture with lobster fishing and while service sector grew with prominence. Kingscote is the administrative center, and it is the largest town. The island has numerous nature sanctuaries to guard the fragments of its native animals and natural vegetation, with the Flinders Chase National Park being the biggest and the best-acknowledged park (Smith 9). Mathew Flinders, a British explorer, alit near Kangaroo Head on Dudley Peninsula in 1802. Nicolas Baudin, a French explorer, followed later on and mapped most of the Island. Kangaroo Island became the first free settlement in Australia with runaway sailors, escaped convicts and sealers calling it home. Kangaroo Island is bestowed with inborn animals in primeval settings. They include the sea lions in their habitation at Seal Bay and petite penguins swaying to shore in Penneshaw (Wakefield 12). The island has jagged adventurous landscapes and pleasurable beaches. The island also has a Hike Hanson Bay for hiking and Kelly Hill Conservation Park for caving. One of the unique elements of the Kangaroo Island is the remarkable ancient rocks. The island coast, on the other hand, has dolphins that people swim with, snorkel vivid reefs and dive shipwrecks. The wildlife in Kangaroo Island is comprised of birds like pelicans, ducks, swans, wader and little penguins. The Island is a home to two hundred sixty seven bird species and hundreds of peaceful kangaroos. Other animals include wallabies, possums and kangaroos that are most active on their nocturnal tour from American River (Wakefield 12). Flinders Chase National Park has awe-inspiring rock formations and Admirals Arch. Still the island is bequeathed with historic lighthouse surroundings where people learn about the introverted existences of light custodians and their families. The infinite coastal escapades dive with sporadic leafy sea